Instrumentation and Sensors for Engineering Measurements and Process Control
Arun Shukla, University of Rhode Island and James W Dally, University of Maryland
This textbook represents a major revision of the second edition of Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements, which was published by Wiley in 1993. Over the past two decades many developments of sensors and instruments have occurred that impact methods for making engineering measurements and controlling processes. We have reviewed these developments and have updated the content in Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements. The coverage of obsolete techniques and instruments was deleted and descriptions of newer sensors and measurement methods were added. Also the material was reorganized to reduce redundancy and to focus the reader’s attention on more important topics. The resulting book is shorter and more of its contents can be covered in a course lasting a single semester or quarter.
The first four chapters provide the foundation for understanding circuits, analog and digital signals, measurement systems and instruments for measuring voltage. Chapter 1 is an introduction to applications of measurement systems, where engineering measurements and process control are described. The details of process control and engineering analysis are presented. Finally experimental error and the factors that cause it are given in considerable detail. Chapter 2 provides methods for analysis of circuits. It includes a brief review of electrical and electronic principles important in understanding the operation of instrument systems. Of particular importance is the introduction of the frequency response function which is of vital importance in making dynamic measurements. Chapter 3 covers digital recording systems and contains detailed descriptions of the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion processes. This chapter also covers the characteristics of both static and dynamic voltage measuring instruments. Chapter 4 gives a detailed description of potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge circuits, which condition sensor output. Also included is a treatment of several types of amplifiers and filter circuits.
Chapters 5 through 10 deal with methods for measuring many different mechanical quantities. Chapter 5 describes sensors for measuring displacement and velocity of an object when a fixed reference for mounting the sensor is available. Optical methods including interferometers and digital image correlation have been added to this coverage. Chapter 6 provides an extensive treatment on the measurement of strain. It includes signal condition circuits, recording instruments, calibration methods, lead wire effects, electrical noise and the effect of temperature. Methods of converting strain to stress for different types of stress states are covered. Finally mechanical and optical strain sensors have been introduced.
Chapter 7 covers methods used to measure force, torque and pressure. The emphasis is on the sensors (transducers) employed. Methods for designing transducers are introduced. Finally the important topic of the response of transducers is developed for both a ramp and sinusoidal forcing functions. Chapter 8 deals with measuring temperatures that range from cryogenic to plasmas. Sensors such as the RDT, IC, thermistor and thermocouples and recording instruments are described. For very high temperatures the pyrometers used for both point and full field measurements are treated. Chapter 9 deals with measurements of fluids flowing in space, in open and closed channels. Pitot tubes, anemometers and turbine flow meters are described. For flow in closed systems the venturi and orifice meters are covered. Weirs are treated for measuring flow in open channels. A brief coverage for measuring flow in compressible fluid is given.
Chapter 10 deals with the most difficult topic covered in this textbook as it addresses measurements that cannot be made relative to a fixed reference. To manage this constraint, a seismic transducer model is introduced. This model is represented as a second order differential equation. Analysis of the seismic model indicates that it can be designed to accommodate different sensors with outputs that give the force, pressure, displacement, velocity or acceleration. Two types of sensors are employed with the seismic transducers—piezoelectric and more recently piezoresistive sensors.
Chapters 11 and 12 are different because they do not deal directly with measurements. Instead Chapter 11 provides a brief coverage of those topics in Statistics that are commonly employed in analyzing data and in reporting the results from experimental studies. Chapter 12, which is entirely new, deals with a systematic approach to preparing technical and laboratory reports. Engineers are required to write reports to management, their peers and others outside their firms. This chapter outlines an approach for preparing well received documentation of design developments and of experimental measurements.
Material included in this textbook provides an in depth coverage of the sensors and instrumentation used in making engineering measurements without introducing significant errors. For a first course, which is usually taught in the 3rd year after the students have completed an introductory course on circuits, we recommend a lecture/laboratory sequence covering Chapters 1-8, and 12. For a second course for undergraduates, we recommend a lecture/project sequence with material from Chapters 9-12 used as required to properly cover the instrumentation principles used in executing the projects. In spite of the costs for modern laboratory instruments and faculty time, laboratory exposure with hands-on experience is essential for a thorough understanding of the topic.
| Instrumentation and Sensors for Engineering Measurements and Process Control
488 pages, copyright 2013 , Hard Cover
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